How to Use Buros Publications
- If you know the title of the test, you may use the alphabetical page headings to go directly to the test entry.
- If you know the English title of the test but do not know whether there is a Spanish version of it (or if you know there is a Spanish version but do not know its title), consult the Index of Titles to find the correct title to use. The Index of Titles lists both Spanish and English test titles and provides the test number from which one may access the descriptive entry.
- If you do not know, cannot find, or are unsure of the title of a test, you may consult the Index of Titles for possible variants of the title or may consult the appropriate subject area of the Classified Subject Index for other possible leads or for similar or related tests in the same area.
- If you know the author of a test but do not know the title or Publisher, you may consult the Index of Names and look up the test author and corresponding test titles until the desired test is found.
- If you know the test publisher but not the test title or test author, you may consult the Publishers Directory and Index and look up the publisher’s titles until the desired test is found.
- If you are searching for a test that yields a particular kind of score but have no knowledge of which test that might be, you can use the Score index to look up the test or tests that include the score variable of interest.
- Once you have found the test or tests you are looking for, you should read the descriptive entries for these tests carefully in order to take advantage of the information provided. If the test entry has cross references, you may wish to access the critical reviews for the test in The Mental Measurements Yearbook series. A description of the information available in PPE test entries is presented to the right.
- After you have read the descriptive information, you may want to order a specimen set of a particular test to examine the test materials firsthand. The Publishers Directory and Index provides the contact information needed to obtain specimen sets or catalogs.
Making Effective Use of the Test Entries
The test entries include extensive information. For each test, descriptive information is presented in the following order:
- a) TITLE
Test titles are printed in boldface type. Titles are provided in the language used by the test publisher. Secondary or series titles are set off from main titles by a colon.
- b) ORIGINAL NAME
If applicable, the original test title is given. Often, this title is the title associated with the original language version of the test. If the original test was published by a different publisher, that publisher is listed parenthetically.
- c) PURPOSE
For each test we include a brief, clear statement describing the purpose of the test. Often these statements are quotations from the test manual.
- d) ORIGIN
The country and language in which the original test was developed is specified. Where applicable, this field also includes the year in which the original test was published.
- e) TRANSLATION/ADAPTATION
This section describes the process used to translate or adapt the test or its respective components into Spanish, using information provided in the test materials. For example, test publishers may describe the use of a translation/back translation process or may report developing Spanish and English versions of a test simultaneously.
- f) POPULATION
This field provides a description of the groups for which the test is intended. The grade, chronological age, semester range, or employment category is usually given. If a Spanish test lists grade levels (Primaria, ESO, Bachillerato), these are translated to the corresponding ages, such that 2o Primaria = 7 years, 3o Primaria = 8 years, 4o Primaria = 9 years, 5o Primaria = 10 years, 6o Primaria = 11 years, 1o ESO = 12 years, 2o ESO = 13 years, 3o ESO = 14 years, 4o ESO = 15 years, 1o Bachillerato = 16 years, 2o Bachillerator = 17 years. For tests developed in the United States, “Grades 1.5–2.5, 2–3, 4–12, 13–17” means that there are four test booklets: a booklet for the middle of first grade through the middle of second grade, a booklet for the beginning of second grade through the end of third grade, a booklet for Grades 4 through 12 inclusive, and a booklet for undergraduate and graduate students in colleges and universities.
- g) NORMS
A descriptive summary of available norms is reported in terms of development, sample sizes, geographic information, and other data, as available; the availability of Spanish norms is noted.
- h) PUBLICATION DATE
The inclusive range of publication dates for the various forms, accessories, and editions of a test is reported.
- i) ACRONYM
When a test is often referred to by an acronym by the test publisher, the acronym is given in the test entry immediately following the publication date.
- j) SCORES
The number of part scores (e.g., subscores or component scores) is presented along with their titles or descriptions of what they are intended to represent or measure.
- k) ADMINISTRATION
Individual or group administration is indicated. A test is considered a group test unless it may be administered only individually.
- l) FORMS, PARTS, AND LEVELS
All available forms, parts, and levels are listed.
- m) PRICE DATA
Price information is reported for test packages, answer sheets, all other accessories, and specimen sets. The statement “$17.50 per 35 tests” means that all accessories are included unless otherwise indicated by the reporting of separate prices for accessories. The statement also means 35 tests of one level, one edition, or one part unless stated otherwise. Because test prices can change very quickly, the year that the listed test prices were obtained is also given. All currency is assigned the appropriate symbol. Along with cost, the publication date and number of pages on which print occurs is reported for manuals and technical reports (e.g., 1995, 102 pages). All types of machine-scorable answer sheets available for use with a specific test are also reported in the descriptive entry. Scoring and reporting services provided by publishers are reported along with information on costs. In a few cases, special computerized scoring and interpretation services are given in separate entries immediately following the test.
- n) TIME
The number of minutes of actual working time allowed examinees and the approximate length of time needed for administering a test are reported whenever obtainable. The latter figure is always enclosed in parentheses. Thus, “50(60) minutes” indicates that the examinees are allowed 50 minutes of working time and that a total of 60 minutes is needed to administer the test. A time of “40–50 minutes” indicates an untimed test that takes approximately 45 minutes to administer, or—in a few instances—a test so timed that working time and administration time are very difficult to disentangle. When the time necessary to administer a test is not reported or suggested in the test materials but has been obtained through correspondence with the test publisher or author, the time is enclosed in brackets.
- o) COMMENTS
Some entries contain special notations, such as: “for research use only”; “revision of the ABC Test”; “tests administered monthly at centers throughout the United States”; “subtests available as separates”; and “verbal creativity.” A statement such as “verbal creativity” is intended to further describe what the test claims to measure. Some of the test entries include additional factual statements that may influence one's perception of the test, such as “1990 test identical with test copyrighted 1970.”
- p) AUTHOR
For most tests, all authors are reported. In the case of tests that appear in a new form each year, typically only authors of the most recent forms are listed. Names are reported exactly as printed on test booklets. Names of editors generally are not reported.
- q) TRANSLATOR/ADAPTOR
The names of the test translators or adaptors are provided, when this information can be ascertained from the test materials.
- r) PUBLISHER
The name of the publisher or distributor is reported for each test. The Publishers Directory and Index must be consulted for a publisher’s address and other contact information.
- s) SUBLISTINGS
Levels, editions, subtests, or parts of a test available in separate booklets are sometimes presented as sublistings with titles set in small capital letters. Sub-sublistings are indented and titles are set in italic type.
- t) SPANISH COMPONENTS
Test components available in Spanish are listed. If the test is entirely available in Spanish, the following statement is made: "All materials are available in Spanish." If the test offers only certain parts in Spanish, those parts are specified, as in, "The instructions and answer sheets are available in Spanish."
- u) ENGLISH COMPONENTS
Test components available in English are listed. Tests that have been fully adapted into Spanish or that are translations often continue to offer some or all test materials in English. In these cases, the English components are specified. Tests that have been fully adapted into Spanish or that are translations may not offer any English materials in the version listed in PPE. In these cases, the phrase, "There are no English materials in this version" is used. For tests available only in Spanish, the following statement is made, "There are no materials available in English."
- v) CROSS REFERENCES
Tests that meet Buros Center review criteria may have been reviewed previously in the Mental Measurements Yearbook series. If so, cross-reference information is included at the end of the test entry. For tests that have been reviewed previously in a Mental Measurements Yearbook, a test entry includes a final paragraph containing a cross reference to the reviews for that test, using the yearbook number and test number. For example, the cross reference, “18:113,” refers to test 113 (School Motivation and Learning Strategies Inventory) in The Eighteenth Mental Measurements Yearbook. Cross-reference information is provided for tests for which the title in PPE is identical to the test name used in the corresponding review.