Lee Anna Clark

Lee Anna Clark, Ph.D.


Using the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP) to Assess Antisocial Traits and Behaviors

March 2, 2021 (Tuesday)

Learning Objective

Describe the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality Second Edition (SNAP-2) and its utility in assessing antisocial traits and behaviors.


The Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality, now in its Second Edition (SNAP-2) was developed to assess a range of personality traits spanning across the adaptive–maladaptive range. It follows the Three-Factor Eysenckian-Tellegenian tradition of personality structure with the higher order domains of Negative Emotionality, Positive Emotionality, and Disinhibition (vs. Constraint). Negative and Positive Emotionality parallel Neuroticism and Extraversion of the Five-Factor Model (FFM) of personality, whereas Disinhibition incorporates variance related to both the FFM’s (low) Agreeableness and (low) Conscientiousness. Following a brief introduction to the measure, data will be presented documenting how the SNAP-2’s and its adolescent version, the SNAP-Y’s trait scales relate to antisocial traits and behaviors.


Dr. Lee Anna Clark is the William J. and Dorothy K. O’Neill Professor of Psychology at the University of Notre Dame and Chair of the Department of Psychology. She has previously been a Professor of Psychology and Director of Clinical Training at the University of Iowa, and Associate Professor at Southern Methodist University. She developed the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP), a psychological test that measures personality traits across the normal-abnormal spectrum. She is widely published and is one of the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI)'s "most highly cited" psychologists. She was on the Personality and Personality Disorder Work Group for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorder, 5th Ed. (DSM-5), and of the Personality Disorder Working Group for the International Classification of Diseases, 11th Ed. (ICD-11), which is the international standard for diagnosis of mental disorder. Dr. Clark was awarded the Society for Personality and Social Psychology's 2017 Jack Block Award for Distinguished Contributions to Personality, the Society for Research in Psychopathology's 2017 Joseph Zubin Award for Lifetime Contributions to Psychopathology, and the 2019 John Gunderson Senior Researcher Award by the International Society for the Study of Personality Disorder. Her research interests include the core elements of personality pathology, the relationship between personality pathology and other types of psychopathology, and psychosocial disability.